The Emissia.Offline Letters Электронное научное издание (педагогические и психологические науки)
Издается с 7 ноября 1995 г. Учредитель: Российский государственный педагогический университет им. А.И.Герцена, Санкт-Петербург
The actuality of the reformation of the existing system of education is stipulated by a number of closely connected tendencies including globalization, informatization and intellectualization inseparably connected with it, acceleration of the social and economic development of the world community (“compression of the historic time”). In this situation the relevance of carrying out the problem of humanitarization as the most important component of a new paradigm of education consisting of fundamentality, integrity and orientation at forming of the personality of a specialist who owns not only developed professional competences but policultural outlook and humanitarian literacy, well-formed and stable feeling of responsibility for social and ecological aspects of his or her activity, capable of integral and systematic analysis of the complicated problems of the present-day life of the society and environment has greatly increased. Humanitarization is a world phenomenon in which common global processes are reflected. First of all it is aimed at forming of the holistic, systematic thinking, at the priority of the development of the common cultural components in the contents of education and thus at forming of the personal maturity of students. We believe that the requirement of correlation of the educational vector with the development of the civilization as a whole, requirement of consideration of the civilizational problems of the society are stipulated by the dissipative basis of the educational system that's why the basis of the concept of the humanitarization of education is in the orientation of education at solving the tasks which are in the field of modern civilization and culture.
In the scientific literature humanitarization of education is considered from the psycho-pedagogical, philosophic and sociological point of view but however there have not been entirely formed distinct theoretic-methodological approaches to the analysis of this process in the world pedagogy. Heterogeneity in the definition of the notion "humanitarization of education" and in the approaches to the investigation of the problem of expansion of the humanitarian constituent of education, insufficient theoretical working out of the axiological basis and content of humanitary-orientated system of teaching in the educational systems of different levels set a task of conceptual working out of the problem of humanitarization of education.
Humanitarization of education is a system of measures aimed at the priority of developing of the common cultural components of the contents of education and through them fixing spiritual values common to all mankind in the consciousness of students as well as humanistic attitude to every living thing and first of all to a human being. Then humanitarization of education would mean filling and supplementing of the curriculum with humanitarian contents, that is, it implies including into the teaching process a cycle of humanitarian components which give an opportunity to line the borders of culture, to put the mechanism of interrelation of a student with the socio-cultural phenomena of contemporary life into action. As many scholars state it is humanitarization that is missioned to provide synthesis of technical, humanitarian and natural sciences disciplines based on multileveled integration of the whole complex of the studies and the very essence of humanitarization of education lies in the formation of the style of thinking and activity which are orientated at assimilation, development and use of any knowledge as a means of humanization of life.
We should note that analogous to the Russian term “humanitarization” in the English speaking works of science is the term “humanities” in the meaning “studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills (rather than occupational or professional skills)” . As pointed out in , “the term "humanities" includes, but is not limited to, the study of: languages, modern and classical; linguistics; literature; history; jurisprudence; philosophy; archaeology; comparative religion; ethics; the history, criticism and theory of the arts; those aspects of social sciences which have humanistic content and employ humanities methods; and the study and application of the humanities to the human environment with particular attention to reflecting our diverse heritage, traditions and history and to the relevance of the humanities to the current conditions of national life”. “Humanities” are based on interdisciplinary and integrative approaches to the formation of the contents of education by introducing obligatory and elective courses of humanitarian character [3, 4].
In the world practice humanitarization is mainly carried out by introducing a wide range of obligatory and elective courses of sociocultural and integrative-interdisciplinary character into the educational process. However quite often the scope of suggested courses is conditioned by accidental circumstances, by availability of specialists in this or that field of humanitarian sciences, the percentage of students involved in the suggested humanitarian courses is rather small and the effectiveness of use of study time is low. In our opinion humanitarization as an accent on the predominance of the role of the humanitarian disciplines is unacceptable in substance. We think that the aims and tasks of humanitarization of education lie in the reorientation of the teaching of basic and elective disciplines from objective-impersonal reproduction of knowledge to the pointing out their place and role in the sociocultural context of the epoch on the basis of the investigation of the objects of study in the system "nature-science-technics-society-human". It is necessary to not only give humane forms and methods of teaching but to give historically reflexive character to the very contents of education. At the same time it is important in essence to fix attention not on the humanitarian education but on the humanitarian contents of any professional education.
The problem of humanitarization acquires a character of special priority under the circumstances of reconstruction of the system of education in the world in accordance with the competence approach the result-aimed basis of which, as many scholars believe, is a system of key competences including subsystems of subjective-personal, organizational-active and social-communicative competences. The systematic approach to the higher professional education in the competence-orientated model requires, as we think, promotion of the concept of general humanitarian basis of the modern education by means of the integrative-content approach to the forming of its structure independently of its particular methodological aims and trends of particular courses.
We have developed conceptual-theoretical model of general humanitarian basis of education [5 - 7]. Our model includes the following components:
On the basis of the
conceptual-theoretical model of local humanitarian-developing
educational environment it is advisable to establish
humanitarian-oriented teaching tools and computer programs, the purpose
of which is to form a coherent structure of value and meaning systems
that determine mentality of a future specialist, through the prism of
which there comes the awareness of a rapidly changing world and a
human's place in it, the development of value-semantic relation to each
issue (global or local, mass or individual), the vision of its inner
human meaning and understanding of its positive (or destructive)
effects; the development of intellectual and personal qualities such as
openness to the new, tolerance, understanding many facets of the world,
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